Installing OpenStack – Diablo release (nova and glance)

I know a lot of folks are using the StackOps script thingy to install OpenStack. I’ve been installing it (quite a bit) lately just from packages, and it’s not all that difficult, so I thought I’d write up the details on how to do that. A lot of this is exactly what’s encoded into Chef recipes and Puppet modules out there – so if you’re looking to run with something already made, there’s plenty of options.

These instructions are assuming you’re starting with an Ubuntu based system – either 10.10 or 11.04. I haven’t tried it as yet with 11.10.

First things first, I recommend you make sure you have the latest bits of everything:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
sudo apt-get autoremove

Then we need to add the release “PPA” so that your system can grab the packages for Openstack:

sudo apt-get install python-software-properties
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:openstack-release/2011.3
sudo apt-get update

Now we get into the details. I’m going to drive out the instructions that will start with a single host, but are set up to add additional virtualization hosts as you need. I’m writing this assuming you’re working in a small network, and setting it up for FlatDHCP networking. Choosing the networking strategy and IP address space to use is actually one of the trickier parts of doing a reasonable install. For just testing something out in a test lab, this setup will work reasonable well – the only thing to really note is that this *will* install a DHCP server to provide IP addresses to the virtual instances, so if you have another DHCP server handing out addresses, you might need to get into the details and change some of these settings.

Installing the packages:

OpenStack relies on using MySQL as a data repository for information about the openstack configuration, so we’ll need to set up a MySQL server. Normally when you install the packages for MySQL, it’ll ask you about configuring a root password and such. We can make that hands-off by pre-answering some of those questions. To do this, make a file named “/tmp/mysql_preseed.txt” and put in it the following:

mysql-server-5.1 mysql-server/root_password password openstack
mysql-server-5.1 mysql-server/root_password_again password openstack
mysql-server-5.1 mysql-server/start_on_boot boolean true

Then we can get into the commands to install the packages:

cat /tmp/mysql_preseed.txt | debconf-set-selections
apt-get install mysql-server python-mysqldb
apt-get install rabbitmq-server
# ^^ pre-reqs for running controller nova instance
apt-get install euca2ools unzip
# ^^ for accessing nova through EC2 APIs
apt-get install nova-volume nova-vncproxy nova-api nova-ajax-console-proxy
apt-get install nova-doc nova-scheduler nova-objectstore
apt-get install nova-network nova-compute
apt-get install glance

That’s got all the packages installed onto your local system! Now we just need to configure it up and initialize some information (that’s the bit about networks, etc).

Before I get into changing configs, let me explain what I’ll be setting up. In this example, my internal “network” is – and I have a dedicated IP address for this host that is The virtual machines will be in their own network space ( to, and (at this point) not visible from the local network, but will be able to access the local network through their virtualization hosts. The machine I’m using also only has a single NIC (eth0), which is fine for a little test bed, but not likely what you want to do in any sort of real setup.



Now you might have noticed the MySQL connection string in there. We need to set up that user and password in MySQL to do what needs to be done. I also change the MySQL configuration so that remote systems can connect to MySQL. It’s not needed on a single host, but if you ever want to have more than one compute host, you need to make this change. In /etc/mysql/my.conf, find the line:

bind-address =

and change it to


Now lets make the user in Mysql:

mysql -popenstack
CREATE USER 'novadbuser' IDENTIFIED BY 'novaDBsekret';

And set up the database:

mysql -popenstack -e 'CREATE DATABASE nova;'
nova-manage db sync

If that last command gives you any trouble, then we likely don’t have the MySQL system configured correctly – the user can’t access the tables or something. Check in the logs for MySQL to get a sense of what might have gone wrong.

At this point, it’s time to configure up the internals of openstack – create projects, networks, etc.
We’ll start by creating an admin user:

# create admin user called "cloudroot"
nova-manage user admin --name=cloudroot --secret=sekret

This should respond with something like:

export EC2_ACCESS_KEY=sekret
export EC2_SECRET_KEY=653f3fad-df22-449b-9e6a-ea6c81e32621

You can scratch that down, but we’ll be getting that same information again later and using it, so don’t worry too much about it.

Now we create a project:

# create project "cloudproject" with project mgr: "cloudroot"
nova-manage project create --project=cloudproject --user=cloudroot

And finally, a network configuration for those internal IP addresses:

nova-manage network create private 
# gateway assumed at
# broadcast assumed at

Now I’m using the multi-host flag, which is new in the Diablo release. This makes each compute node it’s own networking host for the purposes of allowing the VM’s you spin up to access your network or the internet.

At this point, you’re system should be up and running, all systems operational. Let me walk you through the command steps to actually kick up a little test VM though. These commands are all meant to be done as a local user (not root!)

sudo nova-manage project zipfile cloudproject cloudroot /tmp/
unzip -o /tmp/ -d ~/creds
cat creds/novarc >> ~/.bashrc
source creds/novarc
euca-add-keypair mykey > mykey.priv
chmod 600 mykey.priv
uec-publish-tarball $image mybucket
uec-publish-tarball ubuntu-10.04-server-uec-amd64.tar.gz mybucket
Thu Aug 18 14:02:20 PDT 2011: ====== extracting image ======
Warning: no ramdisk found, assuming '--ramdisk none'
kernel : lucid-server-uec-amd64-vmlinuz-virtual
ramdisk: none
image  : lucid-server-uec-amd64.img
Thu Aug 18 14:02:29 PDT 2011: ====== bundle/upload kernel ======
Thu Aug 18 14:02:34 PDT 2011: ====== bundle/upload image ======
Thu Aug 18 14:03:12 PDT 2011: ====== done ======
emi="ami-00000002"; eri="none"; eki="aki-00000001";

And running the instances:

euca-run-instances ami-00000002 -k mykey -t m1.large
RESERVATION r-1jj2a80v  cloudproject    default
INSTANCE    i-00000001  ami-00000002            scheduling  mykey (cloudproject, None)  0       m1.tiny2011-08-18T21:06:03Z unknown zone    aki-00000001    ami-00000000
RESERVATION r-1jj2a80v  cloudproject    default
INSTANCE    i-00000001  ami-00000002    building    mykey (cloudproject, SIX)   0   m1.tiny 2011-08-18T21:06:03Z    nova    aki-00000001    ami-00000000
RESERVATION r-1jj2a80v  cloudproject    default
INSTANCE    i-00000001  ami-00000002    running mykey (cloudproject, SIX)   0       m1.tiny 2011-08-18T21:06:03Z    nova    aki-00000001    ami-00000000
euca-authorize -P tcp -p 22 default
ssh -i mykey.priv root@

To add on additional hosts to support more VMs, you only need to install a few of the packages:

apt-get install nova-compute nova-network nova-api

You do need that exact same /etc/nova/nova.conf file though.

The default install of Glance expects the images that you’ve loaded up to be available on the local file system for every compute node at /var/lib/glance. Either NFS mount this directory from a central machine, or replicate the files underneath it to all your “compute hosts” when you upload a new image to be used in the virtual machines.

Also, the metadata URL needed for UEC images ( may need help getting forwarded when running on a system with a single NIC. Two potential solutions: A) run nova-api on each of the compute nodes (quick and dirty) or B) specify the –ec2_dmz_host=$HOSTIP, and potentially invoke the command ip link set dev br100 promisc on to turn on promiscuous mode (per

19 thoughts on “Installing OpenStack – Diablo release (nova and glance)

  1. Hi Joe,

    Thanks for the heads-up, this pretty much summarizes what we need to move up from Cactus to Diablo!

    OpenStack tops the stack of clouds 🙂



  2. I have done the similar steps with you. But I meet some problems.

    First can you put your /etc/network/interfaces here.
    And then how can vms access to the internal ? Do you use iptables for nat?


    • The /etc/network/interfaces file is a standard static IP address for this host, but be aware that specifying –multi-host in the options causes the Nova network system to enable a bridge interface on whatever you have defined as “–flat-interface” for use in communicating with the VMs on that host.

      The file:

      auto lo
      iface lo inet loopback

      auto eth0
      iface eth0 inet static

      By default (and this example), the outside world doesn’t have access to ping these VMs directly. For that you need to define and set up floating IP addresses, which I skipped in this walk through. The virtualization host has access to that network, so you can SSH into your hosts from there once you’ve given appropriate permissions to access port 22 (it’s at the very end of the writeup, in not very documented steps)


  3. Hi Joe,
    I installed the same your instructions.and I success with a single host.
    But i have the problem for multi host model.
    I have 2 node
    node 1 and node 2 installed with your instructions.
    Don’t have any problem When i try “sudo nova-manager db sync”.But the command “sudo nova-manage service list” shows out an error in the nova-manage.log
    And It have the same issue with this bug (

    node 1:
    network card:
    root@openstack2:/home/cloud# ip addr
    1: lo: mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet scope host lo
    inet scope link lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
    valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:1d:60:e8:75:74 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global eth0
    inet6 fe80::21d:60ff:fee8:7574/64 scope link
    valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    3: eth1: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:1d:60:e8:76:6e brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global eth1
    inet6 fe80::21d:60ff:fee8:766e/64 scope link
    valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    4: eth2: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:1d:60:e8:72:99 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    5: eth3: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state DOWN qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:1d:60:e8:74:29 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    6: virbr0: mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/ether 8a:50:e4:60:e4:49 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global virbr0

    node 2:
    network card
    cloud4@openstack4:~$ ip addr
    1: lo: mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet scope host lo
    inet scope link lo
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
    valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    2: eth0: mtu 1500 qdisc mq state DOWN qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:14:5e:7b:aa:8e brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    3: eth1: mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:14:5e:7b:aa:8f brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet6 fe80::214:5eff:fe7b:aa8f/64 scope link tentative dadfailed
    valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    4: eth2: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:11:0a:61:0e:a0 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global eth2
    inet6 fe80::211:aff:fe61:ea0/64 scope link
    valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    5: eth3: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:11:0a:61:0e:a1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global eth3
    inet6 fe80::211:aff:fe61:ea1/64 scope link
    valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    6: virbr0: mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN
    link/ether 0e:41:57:f3:05:73 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet brd scope global virbr0



    • That reads like a timeout while connecting to your Mysql database. You might double check the connectivity between your hosts and that database by using the mysql client on the command line from each of the compute nodes to make sure you can get to what’s needed. If you were following my examples, then something like “mysql -h -u novadbuser --password novaDBsekret nova” should allow you to connect from either host.


  4. I tried to change the vlan to and the command “sudo nova-manage service list” run successfully without any error in my nova-manage.log
    I don’t understand this issue. This is a bug or where i was wrong?


  5. Hi Joe,

    I was unable to get your config to work on 10.10 following your steps exactly. In the end I had to use this doc: _ when it came to the creation of the user, project and credentials. When I followed your steps I did not receive any errors until trying to publish the tarball. I would then run a simple euca command and get:

    nova@licof038:~$ euca-describe-images
    Warning: failed to parse error message from AWS: :1:0: syntax error
    EC2ResponseError: 403 Forbidden
    403 Forbidden

    Access was denied to this resource.

    I knew it was a credentials issue which is why I tried another document which had a variant of the procedure. It think it was a combination of the different syntax as well as restarting all the services after the sourcing of novarc which this document did not mention. Can you think of any other reason why following the steps herein ended in the credentials issue for me? These steps were far easier and straightforward so I would prefer to use it in the future.



  6. I tried these instructions on an Ubuntu 11.04 VM using the latest diablo versions available from ppa:openstack-release/2011.3. uec-publish-tarball failed because euca-describe-images failed. That failed because the wrong kind of value is being placed into EC2_ACCESS_KEY. It tried to use “clouduser:cloudproject”. It needs to be EC2_ACCESS_KEY=”5146563d-779b-43d5-90f3-31c4cc360f9a:cloudproject” where 514…f9a is the value spit out by “nova-manage user admin –name=cloudroot –secret=sekret”.
    I also had firewall issues with the default firewall settings.


  7. This is a great blogpost! I think this blog post succinctly describes the steps to get OpenStack up and running, the docs have all this information but you have to hunt for it.

    Any chance, you are planning on doing on addendum to this post explaining keystone and dashboard installation. Due to Keystone issues, that has been a real challenge with to know which version and how to get all that properly installed.


  8. Thanks Joe, that would be super helpful in general in the community to get the entire set-up working with a UI( Keystone and Dashboard) that can be used to showcase the product to non-technical folks.


  9. Hi Joe,

    thanks for a nice & clear tutorial; however, when installing glance (apt-get install glance) I have some issues, not sure if it’s my setup of a bug; I get
    Setting up glance (2012.1~e2~20111110.1090-0ubuntu0ppa1~maverick1) …
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “/usr/bin/glance-manage”, line 44, in
    from glance import version as glance_version
    ImportError: No module named glance
    dpkg: error processing glance (–configure):
    subprocess installed post-installation script returned error exit status 1
    (I’m on a ubuntu 10.10);



    • Hey Nico,

      It’s a bug – you’re using the very latest trunk PPA to install your packages, and it looks like there’s a problem with that package. You can either use one of the “released” packages, or you can wait a bit until the bug gets resolved. I’d recommend at least reporting this bug at


  10. Hey Joe …

    Thanks for a great tutorial. I have one slight issue. I need to access my virtuals remotely so I need to allocate/associate floating ips to them. How do I do that with your setup? Can I do it without disturbing the 6 virtual machines I have currently running?




  11. when execute “uec-publish-tarball $image mybucket” now “cloud-pu…”
    I receive: “Unable to run euca–describe-images. Is environment for euca- set up?”

    all logs checked all seems ok

    any suggestion? I followed this guide for Ubuntu 11.10 e diablo
    nova e glance 2011.3 release


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